Politische Entwicklung und Probleme der demokratischen Konsolidierung in Pakistan
Ten years after the second transition to democracy in 1988 Pakistan is still confronted with various problems on her way to democratic consolidation. Because of the constitutional legacies of the military dictatorship and the inherent rivalry between President and Prime Minister none of the elected governments could stay in power to complete its legislative period. The problems of consolidation are not limited to the institutional framework. The military and the feudal interests are still important veto powers, political parties are mainly fragmented among ethnic, religious and personal lines, and civil society, groups are mostly concentrated in the urban centers. The constitutional amendments introduced by the new government of Nawaz Sharif in 1997 removed at least the constitutional deadlock. The recent institutional clashes between the Prime Minister, the Supreme Court and the President which were solved by the mediation of the Army have strengthened the position of the Prime Minister. Given the political traditions since independence it is not unlikely that these developments will foster again autocratic tendencies.
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