Zur Geschichte der Parteien Pakistans
URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bsz:16-iaf-35261 (PDF (Deutsch))
AbstractThe history of Pakistan’s political parties shows various characteristicaily different stages. Before partition, the Muslim League developed from a constitutional party representing mainly the Muslim landlord and urban middle class interest into a broad national movement. It could not maintain this unique position, however, within Pakistan, and various opposition parties were soon formed. They represented on one side mainly the orthodox Islamic elements and, on the other, various regional and autonomistic tendencies. Parties were loose combinations of politicians without much mass support. Their instability and frequent change of loyalties enhanced the influence of Governor-General and bureaucracy. Ayub Khan’s attempt to build an entirely partyless democracy failed, and he had to readmit the old parties placed, however, under severe restraints. In the last phase increasing social tensions led to mass agitation of a new order and the overwhelming successes of Awami League und PPP as well as their inevitable regional confrontation.