This article analyses the large-scale migration from Afghanistan’s rural areas to the cities. Political and economic insecurity in the migrants’ home regions contributes to this movement. By moving to urban areas, migrants hope to find safe(r) housing, work, health services, education and state or NGO support. This article considers to what extent the migrants - primarily poor rural dwellers - benefit from this relocation to towns, bearing in mind that their move is motivated by conditions in rural areas. Utilizing the concept of ‘mobility capital’, this work examines specific examples of the migration experience and the extent to which these migrants are able to capitalize on their new living environment.